The Sand Wasps is composed from a manuscript left behind by Howard Evans upon his death in 2002, and expanded and completed by Kevin O’Neill (which is what Howard Evans intended with the manuscript). The book is a 2007 update on the natural history and behaviour of the Subfamily Bembicinae, gathering together information published since the 1966 publication The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps by Howard Evans.
Howard Ensign Evans was a world-renowned writer and entomologist, focusing on solitary wasps (that is, the wasps that aren’t eusocial). His non-technical books include a book titled Wasp Farm in which he explores the many species of wasps that live on his property at the time, and The Pleasures of Entomology, which describes several insect species and some of the people who studied them. Life on a Little-Known Planet is an excellent overview of just how fascinating insects can be if you take the time to look closer at them, and being published in 1969 contrasts the mysteries of this little-known world against the backdrop of the United States Space Program. In Howard’s opinion, laid out in the book, we would do better to explore the only planet with life because it still contains many mysteries for our curiousity. I couldn’t agree more with this sentiment.
What are Sand Wasps? Sand Wasps are Wasps of the Subfamily Bembicinae (which is a subfamily of the Family Crabronidae). Most Sand Wasps, unsurprisingly, construct their burrows in sand, or other easily movable soils, but some utilize hard clay. In all cases (except for the brood parasites), they use their mandibles and legs to construct some sort of burrow in which they will raise their young. There are many variations on the nest construction process, which the book highlights time and again. Some species close their burrows, either temporarily while they are away from the nest seeking food for their larvae or eggs inside, and/or as a final cap to their nest. These closures are presumed to be a protective measure against parasites or predators of the vulnerable young wasps within. As a further defense, some species construct false burrows beside the true nest, simple tunnels in the substrate that don’t lead to the prey a predator or parasite may be seeking. Within the true nest, there may be one or several brood cells, offshoot chambers that contain the developing young (egg, larva, or pupa) and the prey provided for the young by the parent. Here there is much variation among species: whether the mother lays the egg in each brood cell before gathering prey for the larva-to-be, or if she places her egg on top of the first prey item, or atop the mass of prey she has gathered. The type of prey, how the prey is carried, and when the prey are brought to the cell all vary according to species.
In the following Posts, we’re going to look at the five Tribes of Sand Wasps, using the book The Sand Wasps as our main guide (it is, so far as I know, the only book like this for Sand Wasps), but utilizing other sources when needed.
Evans, Howard E. and O’Neill, Kevin M. The Sand Wasps: Natural History and Behavior, 2007.
Evans, Howard E. Life on a Little-Known Planet, 1969.
Inspired by one of my favourite blogs on the internet, Tetrapod Zoology, or TetZoo (http://tetzoo.com/), I’d like to create a birthday article every year- not for the day I was born, but for the anniversary of my blog’s creation. In this post, I’ll summarize the past year of my blog, as well as the story of Norfolk Naturalist leading up to the blog’s creation. So here we go…
NorfolkNaturalist Version 1
I’ve tried to start creating blog content many times over the years, but it would usually fall to the wayside of my routine. A few years ago, I created a Tumblr blog in which I wanted to post articles about my own nature observations: norfolknaturalist.tumblr.com. My first post was about Cryptic Caterpillars, and I went on to explore various nature topics through the creatures I had observed myself (usually attempting to do so within a timely manner). Sometimes they were focused on a specific aspect of nature, or a specific animal or plant, and other times they were set up as a slideshow of my trip to a Provincial Park (such as MacGregor Point or Algonquin), giving brief comments about the creatures I observed on my trips. My first tumblr post, Cryptic Caterpillars, was published in March 2018, and it was only a month later that I would acquire my most exciting new tool for nature exploration: a Macro Lens. Up to that point, my nature photos were taken with a telephoto lens, and for insects that meant standing far away and cropping the picture later. Sometimes these pictures hold up, especially for insects like Dragonflies and Butterflies, but my dreams became reality when I was able to photograph Springtails dwarfed by the head of a screw. I had also become a member of iNaturalist at the beginning of 2018. So the ability to photograph the smaller creatures I was so fascinated with, combined with the support and community identification of the amazing iNaturalist website, expanded my horizons as an amateur naturalist.
One of my greatest passions has been learning about the animals and plants and fungi in my own surroundings, and these tools allowed me to do so. My tumblr allowed me to share this passion and interest with others of like mind, and I was excited to be sharing my wonder at the nature that is everywhere.
After a year of posting once or twice a month, I stopped for a while, until in November 2019 I began this current blog as a new platform for sharing my interests and observations. Before we look at Norfolk Naturalist in its current form, let’s take a little detour to Instagram.
Observations of the Day
In late 2018 I began to post “Observation of the Day” pictures on Instagram under the profile “norfolknaturalist” (for my Instagram account go here: https://www.instagram.com/norfolknaturalist/). These pictures very quickly became “Observation of the Week” as I really wasn’t that fast at finding interesting creatures to photograph, taking pictures, editing the pictures and transferring them to Instagram. Especially since a lot of my identifications were awaiting confirmation on iNaturalist. These first few pictures (which were titled with their species name and location observed) were then superseded by pictures from my archive of nature photos taken over the years. These photos were posted with a fact about the organisms involved, which grew into my new formula for Instagram: picture of a creature, and a paragraph of interesting information about them. It was really at the beginning of 2020 that I started to post regularly on Instagram, and it was exciting to be doing so. I had accumulated over the years a variety of photos of interesting creatures from local trails in Simcoe, Ontario, as well as various Provincial Parks during camping trips. Reviewing these photos and learning more about the creatures portrayed within them, then sharing that information was quite fun, and I’m really glad I started doing this, and I’m thankful for all the support and interest I’ve received.
The Current Blog (norfolknaturalist.ca)
I created and posted my first page on this blog, norfolknaturalist.ca, on November 30, 2019. (Welcome to my New Nature Blog) The first post was simply a quick overview of my interests, ideas, and goals with the website: namely, sharing my passion and interest in the amazing animals and plants that provide me with neverending fascination.
And that brings us to the sum total of 7 posts in a whole year. Not very prolific at all. But there’s one very good reason for that.
In April of this year, my son was born. I haven’t been writing as regularly as I might be otherwise, distracted in the best possible way.
My goal for next year’s Birthday Article is that I’ll be able to summarize more than 7 posts, because I hope to write on my blog a little more regularly.
I hope you enjoyed my small tour through Norfolk Naturalist history and I hope you can return soon for some new content! I’ve got a few things in the works: Savvy Squirrels, Sand Wasps, and maybe even Salamanders!
Pinery Provincial Park is a great place to visit any time of the year, and Winter is the season when you can get closest to a few of the bird species that make their home there.
We always bring along bird-seed to Pinery when we go in the Winter, because there are a number of birds that will come very close when presented with a nutritious food supply. Some (Black-capped chickadees and White-breasted nuthatches) can be induced fairly quickly to landing on your hand and feeding from it. This year, we were a bit early in the season and most of the birds except a few brave chickadees were too wary to feed from our hands. Despite this, we were able to feed many birds by leaving out a pile of seeds on the railing on our site (we were staying in one of the yurts they have there). If you’re planning to do this yourself, remember to not leave the birdseed out overnight. During the day, you will attract small foraging songbirds but at night, you’ll most likely be feeding raccoons, who can devastate snapping turtle populations in the park, if they overpopulate themselves.
The first birds we attracted to our food supply were the bold chickadees, ever-eager to exploit any opportunity available.
Next came the nuthatches, with their impressive ‘talons’ which they use to grip bark as they scale down tree-trunks to pry out insect food.
Tufted titmice were quite abundant as well. I’ve never been able to feed one from my hand, but they were quite content to fling seeds about in the pile, picking out the ones they desired.
The final visitor to our railing was a downy woodpecker. Downys are the smallest woodpeckers in Canada, at approximately 15-17 cm (Backhouse, 2005). Still jabbing as though he were piercing bark, the woodpecker walked awkwardly along the railing. It truly appeared strange to be perched and moving horizontally, as they are so superbly adapted for their vertical orientation on tree trunks.
Although only a few landed on our hands to pick at seeds, we were pleased to see these little birds foraging nearby, bringing cheer to the wintry woods of Pinery Provincial Park.
Backhouse, Frances. Woodpeckers of North America. 2005.
If you’re interested in the living things that inhabit this world with us, then you’ve come to the right place. I’ve always found it fascinating that there are so many different kinds of creatures, living out lives in different ways to us humans. In some cases, it’s difficult to believe that we share the same planet, let alone the same backyard. There are countless species that surprise and delight in your own neighbourhood, and there are many more around the world. I’d like to explore this diversity, and try to share my own excitement about these creatures, whether they are insects, fungi, plants, birds, mammals, or any of the other species that crawl, fly, swim, run or grow across the planet.
To do this, I’m planning on producing posts detailing a specific species or group of species to get a taste of what sort of creatures are out there. I will also occasionally post about my own observations (and photos) of species that I’ve encountered in my own travels in Southern Ontario. Another thing I’d like to do is review books that are relevant to learning about nature, as I have a personal library stocked with some great books about the diversity and wonder of life.
I hope that when you visit this blog you learn a little something, gain a greater appreciation for living things, and get inspired to pay a little more attention to the world of nature that’s all around us.